So, as you know your characters resemble your parents, like your hair colour, skin colour, height, the colour of your eyes and much more. Do you even think what makes you different from others? Let us find it out, now!
Be with us until the end to get interesting facts!
What is the Gene?
Physical & functional unit of heredity and a sequence of DNA that codes for a polypeptide chain(protein) is known as Gene.
- They are the responsible identities for your characters as they inherit into offspring from parents; that’s why you resemble your parents.
- Their expression makes Polypeptide chain which later processed into a hormone or protein that make changes in your body both at the physical and metabolic level.
How Genes makes YOU!
Genes are the true coding sequence of DNA nucleotides which code for a particular character.
- They are present in pairs on homologues chromosomes at the same position and are contrasting in nature termed as Alleles.
- So, a gene pair of contrasting character is called an allele and they code for a particular trait.
- Colour of hairs is CHARACTER (GENE)
- Type of colour is TRAIT (ALLELE) (e.g. black, brown, blonde etc.)
You get one allele from your mother and the other from your father, and their expression depending upon each other (dominant /recessive) (qualitative /quantitative) gives you your uniqueness.
Expression of Genes
Their expression is the key role for your appearance, metabolism, evolution; physical and physiological functions. They follow a series of physiochemical processes for expression which are as follows:
- First, the Reverse Transcription. It is also called CENTRAL DOGMA was given by Francis Crick.
- Then the processed protein (enzyme or hormone) acts on the target site/substrate to express the trait-like the brown eye, blonde hairs, tall height etc.
This is what makes you different from others.
Genes in Biotechnology
As we know what makes the difference at the basic level, so we try to manipulate it for our interest.
We have widely used the biotech techniques to transfer the genes of one organism to other. We used it to get the desired character of that organism into other.
It seems like Sci-Fi but they are being used commercially around the world. For example:
- GMOs like Bt cotton, Agrobacterium, dwarf cereals etc.
- In GENE THERAPY for the cure of chronic diseases like the famous case of ABA deficiency.
- In FOOD PROCESSING for Good quality & more nutritive foods like Golden Rice.
Now, its time for the Interesting Facts:
- Most of the DNA is non-functional, less than 1.5% of it codes for proteins.
- In humans, there are about 20,000 to 25,000 genes, on 3 billion nucleotide base pairs.